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How Does Our Immune System Works?  

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waqarmohsansiddiqui waqarmohsansiddiqui on Friday, October 6, 2017, 1 Year Ago

How Does Our Immune System Works?

Hello! This is Waqar Mohsan Siddiqui. Today we will talk about immune system, its function, immune responses, immune cells, immune tolerance and disorders.

Immune system:

It is the system that protects our body from foreign substances by producing immune responses. The surprising facts about the immune system which you might not be knowing are-

  • Having fever: When you are having fever, its mean, your immune system is working actively by increasing metabolic rate, releasing white blood cells to stop the growth of certain organisms.
  • Sleep hold your peace: If you are not getting 5 hours of sleep a night then your immune system becomes depressed and you are more prone to cold and flu.
  • Effect of laughing: Laughing forces your body to release Dopamine and other feel-good hormones that decreases your stress. It is said that 20 minutes laughing a day, keeps your immune system active and healthy.
  • Vaccination: It plays very important role in educating your immune system. It produces Antibodies against microbe without causing disease.
  • Positive emotions: Immune system may boost up with the healthy lifestyle and positive emotions.

Immune responses:

It is the reaction of the body cells and fluids against foreign particles which are not recognised as the constituents of the body itself. The two types of immune responses are -

  1.  Innate Immunity
  2.  Adaptive Immunity

Innate Immunity:

Innate receptors are the genetically encoded receptors, which recognises viruses, bacteria, fungi etc. The innate receptors include-

1. Neutrophils

2. Eosinophils

3. Basophils

4. Mast cells

5. Monocytes

6. Macrophages

Feature:  The innate receptor responses quickly and broadly to the problems and are critical for the host defence.

Adaptive Immunity:

Adaptive immunity is more specialised and  is related to B and T cells. When pathogen gains entry into your body, the B and T cells multiplies themself and prepares body for necessary defence. The B cells make antibodies for neutralising the pathogen whereas the T cells kill pathogens and activate other immune cells.

Feature: Immune memory is the main feature of adaptive immune response.


It is also called immunisation. It trains the immune system against specific pathogens. It achieves immune memory without an actual response. 

Components of Immune System:

Following are the components of the immune system:

Lymph nodes: It is the part of the lymphatic system that store and produce cells which fights against the disease.

Spleen: It is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. It contains white blood cells that kill pathogens. It helps to control the amount of blood in the body. It also disposes of the old and damaged cells.

Bone marrow: It is the white tissue in the bones, which is responsible for the production of white blood cells.

Lymphocytes: These are the small white blood cells, which play a large role in defending the body against diseases.

Thymus: It is the small organ where T cells become matured. It maintains the production of antibodies.

Leukocytes: It is the second arm of the innate immune system. It identifies and eliminates pathogens.

Immune Disorders:

Following are the disorders of the immune system:

Immune deficiencies: This disorder occurs when some of the component from immune system is absent. In such situation, our body is unable to defend.

Autoimmune disease: In this disease, immune system attacks own body cells.

Sepsis: It is the severe condition in which excess Cytokines are released and infection is caused by these cytokines.

Cancer: When immune cells grow in uncontrol manner then it causes cancer.

How to Boost Immune System:

  • Get a good night's sleep
  • Practice good hygiene
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Take exercise
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